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Defending Canadian Arctic Sovereignty

KevinB

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Another advantage of where most Canadians live occurred to me. If the current interglacial ends and the ice starts piling up again, most of us are within walking distance of a border to cross as climate change refugees.
We are putting out the Do Not Disturb sign...

One never know if the current Interglacial will still spike - we are not near the highs for a typical phase (if you can call them typical) - so we may see a 10+degree F jump still - and not a drop for quite some time, or the current Ice Age will actually end - and we will see a 25+degree F swing upwards -- then you really want to have control of the Arctic - as it's going to be a year long viable route for even non Ice class boats.
 

dimsum

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Colin Parkinson

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Yea it's odd, but I guess for the Indigenous groups the road is the main focus. This is rough representation of the possible road.

1634497073264.png
 

Kirkhill

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The North.jpg

Some other incentives - linking the diamond mines. That could create another northern route from Yellowknife and Great Slave Lake to the NW Passage. Perhaps, initially a mix of surface transport, ice roads and water, when its open.
 

Kirkhill

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homeland-jpg.66660


The other thing the route does is create a spine to support opening the Barrens. And the mineral wealth potential there.
 

SeaKingTacco

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On the other hand there is a reason they call it "the Barrens". Not much there for owls to burrow into.
There- you said it. Owl.

I am sure there is a lichen, or a grass, or something Greenpeace can latch on to.

The hell of it is- you know suffers the most? The First Nations folks denied a chance to develop there own economic futures.
 

Kirkhill

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Another reason for the road?

Green energy metals? Copper, nickel, lithium, and cobalt

South32’s acquisition of a 45% stake in Sierra Gorda, a low-grade open-pit copper mine in Chile’s Antofagasta region for an upfront cash payment of US$1.6 billion, and a further amount of up to US$500,000, structured as a contingent price-linked consideration and payable annually over four years as a percentage of incremental revenue above agreed copper price and production thresholds.
“We are actively reshaping our portfolio for a low carbon world and the acquisition of an interest in Sierra Gorda will increase our exposure to the commodities important to that transition,” South32’s CEO Graham Kerr said. “Copper is a critical metal in the decarbonisation of the world’s energy networks and has strong long-term market fundamentals.”

The mine is expected to produce 180,000 tonnes of copper, 5,000 tonnes of molybdenum, 54,000 oz. gold and 1.6 million oz. silver (214,000 tonnes copper-equivalent) in calendar 2021. South32 is acquiring its stake from Japan’s Sumitomo Metal Mining (31.5%) and Sumitomo Corp. (13.5%). Polish miner KGHM owns the other 55%. South32 is funding the transaction with cash on hand and an underwritten debt acquisition facility.


The Diamond mines are closing but they are leaving a legacy of infrastructure, including power generators, that might be exploitable. In a district defined by Diamond and Gold Mines and the Coppermine River.

Now if they can develop a paying, multi-function mine up north, like that in Argentina?

Or pulling lithium from the Canadian Shield? Ignore the bit about Alberta lithium from the underground brine.

 

daftandbarmy

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We are putting out the Do Not Disturb sign...

One never know if the current Interglacial will still spike - we are not near the highs for a typical phase (if you can call them typical) - so we may see a 10+degree F jump still - and not a drop for quite some time, or the current Ice Age will actually end - and we will see a 25+degree F swing upwards -- then you really want to have control of the Arctic - as it's going to be a year long viable route for even non Ice class boats.

One of my favourite clients is NR Can. It's full of geeky scientists who know alot of things a prole like me finds terrifying.

They told me about the 'Canadian Savannah', which emerges every once in awhile across millennia. One of the key features they discovered, looking a the soil strata was thick layers of charcoal, which seemed to indicate extended periods where there are wide ranging and intense fires that last hundreds of years as the boreal forest burns off and turns into grasslands.

And, just like that, I think I've decided on my Halloween costume! :)

Canada’s boreal forest on verge of dramatic transformation, study finds​


According to the study, the boreal forests have reached a tipping point, meaning that they are about to experience a dramatic increase in temperature—a greater temperature increase than any other ecological zone on earth, in fact. The boreal forest covers a large swath of Northern Canada, as well as portions of Scandinavia and Russia. According to Schepaschenko, parts of Siberia will likely increase in temperature by 11 degrees Celsius.

The result of this temperature increase will be that the solid regions coniferous forest will likely transform into a mixture of groves and grasslands, according to the study. “In our small world, everything is connected,” says Schepaschenko. “There could be big trouble.”

 

Kirkhill

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One of my favourite clients is NR Can. It's full of geeky scientists who know alot of things a prole like me finds terrifying.

They told me about the 'Canadian Savannah', which emerges every once in awhile across millennia. One of the key features they discovered, looking a the soil strata was thick layers of charcoal, which seemed to indicate extended periods where there are wide ranging and intense fires that last hundreds of years as the boreal forest burns off and turns into grasslands.

Oh my dear Aunt Betsy!!! You mean these things have happened before? And we're still here? Some one pass the smelling salts. I have the vapours.

:eek:
 

Kirkhill

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46.8 MW. The stranded power generating capability at Diavik after it shut down. 46.8 MW, call it 48 MW, is equivalent to 12 operating wind turbines at instantaneous load, or 48 wind turbines on average load.

Assuming something similar at Ekati and Jericho.

The link is to a Power Point - PDF describing the energy situation at Diavik in 2013 after wind turbines were installed.


Those power plants, if converted to "locally available" natural gas, with their already established community power grids, would make interesting development hot spots.

Nunavut Power and Energy

Natural Gas/Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)​

  • There is currently no natural gas or NGL production in Nunavut.
  • Nunavut’s natural gas resources are estimated at 181.4 trillion cubic feet.

Electricity​

  • In 2018, Nunavut generated around 0.2 terawatt hours (TW.h) of electricity (Figure 1), which is less than 0.05% of total Canadian production. Nunavut has a generating capacity of 78 megawatts (MW).
  • Qulliq Energy Corporation (QEC), owned by the Nunavut government, is responsible for generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity in Nunavut. QEC operates 25 diesel plants in 25 communities. These communities are not connected by roads or power lines and there is no back-up grid. (Figure 2).
  • Almost all of Nunavut’s electricity is generated from diesel fuel imported during the summer and then stored for year-round use. Approximately 55 million litres of diesel are consumed annually to generate electricity in Nunavut.
  • Solar panels have been installed at the QEC’s power plant in Iqaluit since March 2016 as part of a pilot project. Solar panels have also been installed at the Arctic Winter Games Arena and Arctic College, both in Iqaluit.
  • In April 2018 QEC started accepting applications for its Net Metering Program that allows residential and municipal electricity customers to produce their own electricity through small scale (up to 10 kilowatt (kW)) renewable energy sources, and integrate their surplus energy to QEC’s local grid in exchange for credits for future electricity use.
  • In January 2019, QEC completed construction and testing of new diesel power plants at Grise Fiord and Cape Dorset. These diesel plants replaced older, less efficient models, and have the capability of integrating renewable energy sources. In November 2019, QEC submitted a plan to the territorial government to replace older diesel generators in Arctic Bay with more efficient models, add a fourth generator for expanded capacity, and include capability to integrate renewable sources.
  • In August 2019 the Canadian federal government, QEC, and the Mayor of Kugluktuk announced joint funding for Nunavut’s first hybrid solar/diesel power plant in Kugluktuk, replacing the existing less efficient diesel facility built in the late 1960s. The project will include a 500 solar system.
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Energy Transportation and Trade​

Crude Oil and Liquids​

  • There are no crude oil pipelines or crude-by-rail facilities in Nunavut.
  • RPPs, including gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, are received from neighboring provinces and territories by truck and small vessels. RPPs are distributed throughout the territory in the summer, when the roads and waterways are accessible.
  • Nunavut’s harsh climate, sparse population, small community sizes, and large distance from refining centres results in costly delivery of products. The territorial government’s Petroleum Products Division is responsible for the supply, distribution, and delivery of fuel products using private companies or subcontractors.

Natural Gas​

  • There are no natural gas pipelines in Nunavut.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)​

  • There are no current or proposed large-scale LNG facilities in Nunavut.

Electricity​

  • There are no regional or territorial electricity grids in Nunavut. All electricity generation is community based.
  • Because of long distances to neighbouring provinces and territories, there are no transmission lines to enable the trade of electricity between Nunavut and other jurisdictions.
  • The federal government is supporting a study on the feasibility of the proposed Kivalliq Hydro-Fibre Link Project. The project includes a transmission power line and broadband internet connection from northern Manitoba to communities in Nunavut
 

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Power and Energy in the Northwest Territories​

Considering adjacency to the Nunavut Diamond Mines.

Energy Production​

Crude Oil​

  • In 2018, Northwest Territories (NWT) produced 1.7 thousand barrels per day (Mb/d) of light crude oil (Figure 1). All production is centered near Norman Wells.
  • NWT accounts for less than 0.1% of total Canadian crude oil production.
  • Several wells were drilled for shale gas and shale oil exploration in the Central Mackenzie Valley from 2012 to 2015, but no commercial production resulted. There has been no activity since 2015. In addition, no wells are currently planned or operating in other parts of NWT, including the Beaufort Sea.
  • In December 2016, the federal government announced that Canadian Arctic offshore, including areas offshore of Northwest Territories, is indefinitely off limits to new offshore oil and gas licensing to be reviewed every five years. The first five year review is due in 2021.
  • In 2019, the government issued an order, expiring at the end of 2021, prohibiting all oil and gas activities in the Canadian Arctic offshore, including activities associated with existing licenses. Also in 2019, the government announced that it will freeze the terms of existing licenses in the Arctic offshore to preserve existing rights.
  • NWT’s crude oil resources are estimated at 1.2 billion barrels.

Refined Petroleum Products (RPPs)​

  • There are no refineries in NWT.

Natural Gas/Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)​

  • In 2018, natural gas production in NWT was 1.4 million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d) (Figure 1). This represented less than 0.1% of total Canadian natural gas production.
  • Natural gas is produced in two areas of NWT: Norman Wells and Ikhil, with Normal Wells accounting for the majority of the production. Natural gas has historically been produced at Cameron Hills in southern NWT, but production was suspended in 2015 for economic reasons.
  • Natural gas production from Imperial Oil’s Norman Wells is a by-product of oil production, and the gas is used to generate electricity for the town of Norman Wells. Norman Wells began producing in the 1920s.
  • Natural gas production at Norman Wells was suspended in early 2017 in response to Imperial suspending oil production in the region. Production of crude oil and natural gas resumed in October 2018, following the restart of Enbridge’s Norman Wells Pipeline (Line 21).
  • Natural gas production from Ikhil began in 1999 to supply gas to the town of Inuvik. Currently, the Ikhil field only provides back-up natural gas supply to imported LNG because of technical issues.
  • Southern NWT is estimated to have 48 trillion cubic feet of recoverable, sales-quality natural gas resources, mostly shale gas in the Liard Basin.
  • There is currently no NGL production in NWT.

Electricity​

  • In 2018, NWT generated about 0.35 terawatt hours (TW.h) of electricity (Figure 2), which is approximately 0.1% of total Canadian production. NWT has a generating capacity of 208 megawatts (MW).
  • Northwest Territories Power Corporation (NTPC) generates NWT’s electricity from hydro, fossil fuel, and other renewable sources. The major hydro generators include the Snare, Bluefish, and Taltson hydro systems.
  • Northland Utilities Ltd. also owns some electricity generation facilities in Hay River, Sambaa K’e, Fort Providence, and Wekweeti. Northland Utilities is a joint partnership between ATCO and Denendeh Investments Inc, which represents 27 Dene First Nations across NWT.
  • In normal precipitation years, approximately 75% of NWT’s electricity comes from hydroelectricity. In drier years, the territory relies on diesel generation to make up for the shortfall in precipitation. Diesel is the sole or primary electricity source for remote communities or industries that are not connected to one of NWT’s two hydro-based grids (Figure 3).
  • Wind energy provides approximately 4% of NWT’s energy needs. In 2013, the Diavik Diamond Mine installed four wind turbines with a capacity of 9.2 MW to provide electricity for their primarily diesel-based microgrid at Lac de Gras. In November 2018, the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) and Infrastructure Canada announced up to $40 million funding for the Inuvik Wind Project.
  • While solar provides less than 1% of NWT’s energy needs, several solar projects are in operation. A 100 kilowatt (kW) solar array in Fort Simpson, the largest solar system in northern Canada, was installed in 2012. Since 2016, Colville Lake has been powered by a solar/battery and diesel hybrid system. The settlement located north of the Arctic Circle, with a population of approximately 160, previously relied entirely on diesel-fired generation. The diesel was delivered via winter roads at an annual cost of $140 000. New solar power facilities were installed in Fort Liard and Wrigley in 2016, and in Aklavik in 2017.
  • The Inuvik natural gas power plant, which was supplied by the Ikhil gas field from 1999 to 2012, was restarted in November 2013 with LNG imported from Alberta and B.C. by truck. The second Inuvik plant runs on diesel. NTPC is evaluating the potential to supply other NWT communities on the road system with LNG; to fuel local generators along with diesel.
  • The Government of NWT’s Draft 2030 Energy Strategy proposed the installation of wind turbines in Inuvik to reduce reliance on diesel generation. The report also proposed the installation of wind turbines and solar panels in other, smaller communities, and the connection of Fort Providence, Kakisa, and Whati to Yellowknife’s hydroelectric grid.
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Energy Transportation and Trade​

Crude Oil and Liquids​

  • The Norman Wells Pipeline transports crude oil production from NWT and northwest Alberta to Zama, Alberta (Figure 4). This CER-regulated pipeline has a current capacity of about 15 Mb/d but only transported 3 Mb/d in 2018 and 2019.
  • In November 2016, the Norman Wells Pipeline was shut-in because of safety concerns regarding slope stability on the south bank of the Mackenzie River. As a result, production at Norman Wells was suspended. A 2.5 kilometre (km) section of the pipeline under the Mackenzie River was replaced in 2018. The pipeline resumed operation in October 2018.
  • There are no crude-by-rail facilities in NWT. However, a rail terminal at Hay River receives RPPs, such as gasoline and diesel, from Alberta. These RPPs are delivered to communities in NWT and Nunavut via barges that travel along Great Slave Lake, the Mackenzie River, and the Beaufort Sea.

Natural Gas​

  • Enbridge’s BC Pipeline (also known as Westcoast) originates in the southwestern corner of NWT and connects the Liard Basin in southwestern NWT and the Kotaneelee field in southeastern Yukon to the Fort Nelson, British Columbia (B.C.) gas processing plant (Figure 5). This portion of the pipeline is currently not in operation.
  • A 50 km pipeline connects Ikhil gas field to the town of Inuvik. Most of the pipeline is regulated by the CER under the Oil and Gas Operations Act.
  • The current local distribution company in Inuvik is Inuvik Gas, which is regulated by the Northwest Territories Public Utilities Board (PUB). Inuvik Gas is owned equally by Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation, a subsidiary of ATCO, and a subsidiary of AltaGas. In December 2018, Inuvik Gas gave the town of Inuvik notice that it is concluding its involvement in the distribution of gas in the town, and will work over the next 24 months to transition to a new supplier.
  • The Mackenzie Gas Project was cancelled in December 2017 by project participants Imperial Oil, ConocoPhillips Canada, ExxonMobil Canada, and the Aboriginal Pipeline Group. The proposed project involved the development of gas fields in the Mackenzie Delta and the construction of a 1 200 km gas pipeline (the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline) that would extend from the Mackenzie Delta to the Alberta-NWT border. The project was considered not economically feasible under current North American market conditions.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)​

  • Inuvik receives LNG via truck from the FortisBC small-scale Tilbury Island LNG facility near Vancouver, B.C. This LNG is used by Northwest Territories Power Corporation’s Inuvik LNG facility, which began operation in 2013 and was constructed to displace standby electricity from a diesel generator.
  • There are no existing or proposed large-scale LNG facilities in NWT.

Electricity​

  • NTPC distributes electricity to end-use customers in 26 of the 33 communities across 565 km of transmission lines and 375 km of distribution lines.
  • Northland Utilities Ltd. also distributes electricity to Yellowknife, N’Dilo, Hay River, Sambaa K’e, Kakisa, Dory Point, Fort Providence, Wekweeti, Enterprise and K’at’lodeeche.
  • Because of long distances from populated areas to neighbouring provinces and territories, there are no transmission lines to enable the trade of electricity between NWT and other jurisdictions.
  • There are two regional electricity grids in NWT: the Snare Grid north of Great Slave Lake, and the Taltson Grid south of Great Slave Lake. Both grids are connected to NWT’s hydroelectric supply, but do not connect with each other. Additionally, there are 20 independent systems.
  • PUB is the electricity regulator.
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Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions​

Total Energy Consumption​

  • End-use demand in NWT was 21.3 petajoules (PJ) in 2017. The largest sector for energy demand was industrial at 54% of total demand, followed by transportation at 29%, commercial at 12%, and residential at 6% (Figure 6). NWT’s total energy demand was the third smallest in Canada, and the third largest on a per capita basis.
  • RPPs were the largest fuel-type consumed in NWT, accounting for 16.3 PJ, or 76%. Natural gas and electricity accounted for 3.2 PJ (15%) and 1.2 PJ (6%), respectively (Figure 7).

Refined Petroleum Products​

  • Virtually all of the gasoline consumed in NWT is produced in neighbouring provinces (primarily Alberta) and transported to NWT by truck and by rail.
  • Total 2018 demand for RPPs in NWT was 5.6 Mb/d, or 0.3% of total Canadian RPP demand. Of NWT’s demand, 3.6 Mb/d was for diesel and 0.6 Mb/d was for gasoline.
  • NWT’s per capita RPP consumption in 2018 was 7 378 litres (46 barrels), the highest in Canada. NWT’s RPP consumption per capita is 143% above the national average of 3 038 litres per capita.
  • A significant portion of NWT’s demand for diesel fuel is for power generation. Diesel-based power plants accounted for 55% of NWT’s total installed power capacity in 2018.
  • NWT’s sparse population and limited transportation infrastructure limits the supply and increases the cost of heating and transportation fuels. The territorial government’s Fuel Services Department oversees the purchase, transport, distribution, and storage of fuels for 16 communities not served by private companies and for 20 communities on behalf of the NTPC.

Natural Gas​

  • In 2018, NWT consumed an average of 3.3 MMcf/d of natural gas, which represented less than 1% of total Canadian demand.
  • The only consuming sector for natural gas in NWT was the industrial sector at 3.3 MMcf/d.

Electricity​

  • In 2017, annual electricity consumption per capita in NWT was 7.4 megawatt hours (MW.h). NWT ranked second last for per capita electricity consumption and consumed 49% less than the national average.
  • NWT’s largest consuming sector for electricity in 2017 was commercial at 0.21 TW.h. The residential and industrial sectors consumed 0.12 TW.h and 0.01 TW.h, respectively. NWT’s electricity demand has increased 7% since 2005.
  • Because of its low population density and expensive generation costs, NWT has among the highest electricity rates in the country reaching approximately 30 cents per .h, although rates vary across communities and utility company.
  • Inuvik has been using LNG to power one of its power plants since 2013. NWT plans to displace diesel with increased LNG usage, which would reduce GHG emissions by around 25%.

GHG Emissions​

  • NWT’s GHG emissions in 2017 were 1 260 thousand tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) Footnote1. NWT’s GHG emissions have decreased 15% since 2000, the first full year after part of NWT became Nunavut.
  • NWT’s emissions per capita are the highest in the northern territories at 28.1 tonnes CO2e – 43 % above the Canadian average of 19.6 tonnes per capita.
  • The largest emitting sectors in NWT are transportation at 57% of emissions, industries and manufacturing at 25%, buildings (residential and service industry) at 11%, and electricity at 5% (Figure 8).
  • NWT’s GHG emissions from the oil and gas sector in 2017 were 0.02 MT CO2e, attributable to crude oil and natural gas production.
  • In 2017, NWT’s power sector emitted 0.1 MT CO2e emissions, which represents about 0.1% of Canadian emissions from power generation.
  • NWT’s Net Metering Program allows electricity customers to generate their own electricity (up to 15 kW) from renewable energy sources, and to accumulate energy credits monthly for any excess energy they produce to be used against those months when their usage exceeds their production.
  • NTPC developed residual heat recovery systems in its diesel power plants in Fort Liard and Fort McPherson, reducing demand for heating oil in these communities and reducing GHG emissions by more than 100 tonnes per year.
 

Kirkhill

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One of my favourite clients is NR Can. It's full of geeky scientists who know alot of things a prole like me finds terrifying.

They told me about the 'Canadian Savannah', which emerges every once in awhile across millennia. One of the key features they discovered, looking a the soil strata was thick layers of charcoal, which seemed to indicate extended periods where there are wide ranging and intense fires that last hundreds of years as the boreal forest burns off and turns into grasslands.

And, just like that, I think I've decided on my Halloween costume! :)

Canada’s boreal forest on verge of dramatic transformation, study finds​


According to the study, the boreal forests have reached a tipping point, meaning that they are about to experience a dramatic increase in temperature—a greater temperature increase than any other ecological zone on earth, in fact. The boreal forest covers a large swath of Northern Canada, as well as portions of Scandinavia and Russia. According to Schepaschenko, parts of Siberia will likely increase in temperature by 11 degrees Celsius.

The result of this temperature increase will be that the solid regions coniferous forest will likely transform into a mixture of groves and grasslands, according to the study. “In our small world, everything is connected,” says Schepaschenko. “There could be big trouble.”


So you are saying that the land will change from hard rock, bog and pine infested by black flies like Northern Ontario to the grass and parklands of Edmonton, Saskatoon and Winnipeg (infested by mosquitoes but a damn sight more productive)?

And I am supposed to be concerned about this?

Our biggest concern will be Californians buying up property in Prince Albert.
 

daftandbarmy

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So you are saying that the land will change from hard rock, bog and pine infested by black flies like Northern Ontario to the grass and parklands of Edmonton, Saskatoon and Winnipeg (infested by mosquitoes but a damn sight more productive)?

And I am supposed to be concerned about this?

Our biggest concern will be Californians buying up property in Prince Albert.

Apparently, if you're planning on living another couple million years you might want to be worried about prides of lions (a la Serengeti) spoiling your picnic :)
 

MarkOttawa

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UK Chief of Defence Staff highlights need to pay attention to Russian activities in High North/Arctic and North Atlantic--yet RCN says almost nothing about NATO ASW mission vs Russian subs (plus RN agreement with CCG for Arctic training):

1)
Defense Chief: U.K. Needs to Develop ‘Capability and Deterrence’ in the High North

Keeping the Atlantic open so European allies can remain in the loop with the United States and Canada during a crisis has “always been the case in NATO military strategy” and remains so today, the chief of the United Kingdom’s defense staff said Tuesday [Oct. 19].

Gen. Sir Nicholas Carter said that even in this “era of consistent competition” with authoritarian powers like Russia and China, London looks first to the challenges coming from Moscow in assessing threats.

Speaking at a Center for New American Security forum, he said the Kremlin’s advances in submarine technologies and deep undersea capabilities in its Northern Fleet means “you are right to focus on the maritime” from the North Atlantic to the Arctic as a major security concern for allies and partners like Sweden and Finland.

Seeing this as a new threat, Carter said “we need to be thinking hard about … capability and deterrence” in the High North, especially where operating conditions are difficult…

The United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and the Netherlands – what Carter called “the Quint” – “are focused on the region” and the changing maritime security conditions in the Arctic [of course mainly on the European side of the Atlantic]…

2) And look at this Canadian angle that the UK has publicized and which, as far as I can find, has had no official mention by the Canadian government or Coast Guard–a Royal Navy news release (Canadian media got story from UK igh commission):


https://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/news-a...ctober/08/211008-canadian-coast-guard-link-up
More Royal Navy sailors will be trained in taking ships into challenging polar waters thanks to a new collaborative agreement with the Canadian Coast Guard.

Its sailors will benefit from Canadian training in navigating through icy waters, breaking sheets of ice where necessary, while Canadian Coast Guard personnel will have operational training opportunities and gain experience with crewless technology with the Royal Navy.

The agreement was signed between the two NATO nations at the Canadian Coast Guard’s (CCG) headquarters in Ottawa by its Commissioner, Mario Pelletier, and Second Sea Lord Vice Admiral Nick Hine…

The agreement follows an initiative in early 2020 which saw several watchkeeping officers from HMS Protector, the UK’s sole ice patrol ship, gain valuable experience in ice operations aboard a CCG vessel…The sharing of the Canadian Coast Guard’s wide experience and expertise will mean British sailors are better-equipped when sailing to the frozen region.

In recent years the Royal Navy has demonstrated renewed interest in the Arctic region given its key strategic importance to the security of the UK…

Why do Canadians often have to find out about defence matters our country is involved with from other countries? And why cannot we be specific about countries that our services may have to deal with?

Mark
Ottawa
 
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